The Games: Winter Edition
Copyright/Publisher: Epyx, Graphics by: Suzie Greene, Sheryl Knowles, Jenny Martin, Muffy McCosh, Matthew Sarconi,
Steve Snyder & Paul Vernon, Sound and Music: Chris Ebert & Chris Grigg, Programmers: Edward Chu, Fuzzy Furry,
Eric Knopp, Carl Mey, Scott Nelson, Kevin Norman, Edwin Reich, Al Rubin &
Chuck Sommerville, Release Year: 1988, Genre: Multi Events, Number Of Players: 1 to 8

ONCE IN A LIFETIME...
People all around the world have spent months, years and, in the case of the athletes themselves, lifetimes preparting for this momentous event. And now you can be a part of the excitement yourself. Not just by stitting in front of your television, but by actually competing in computerized simulations of these historic events.

Select from four different collision courses - where every turn is a test of reflexes, timing and nerves - in THE LUGES events.

Choose your own music and your own choreography when you enter the FIGURE SKATING event. Muster all your strength and endurance to put yourself ahead of the game in SPEED SKATING.

Go from 0 to 60 in the lightning-fast DOWNHILL SKIING races - complete with your own strategically placed video cameras. Make your way through one of the four progressively difficult courses in the SLALOM. Sail through the air in the daring SKI JUMP. Or cross the threshold of pain in the CROSS COUNTRY event.

No matter which events you choose to compete in, one thing is certain: It's going to take great practice, patience and plain ord hard work for the Gold.

But, you can do it. And what's more, you're going to have a great time trying!

The Opening Ceremonies:
The first thing you'll notice is the city's magnificent skyline. You'll then proceed to the stadium where you'll witness the legendary lighting of the Torch. Amidst the patriotic and personal dreams of hundreds of thousands of participants and spectators, The Games are about to begin.

Selecting Options:
Listed here are the options available for different machines and formats. The OPTIONS available are:
1) Compete in all events.
2) Compete in some events.
3) Compete in one event.
4) Practice one event.
5) Number of joysticks 1(2)*.
6) See World Records.
7) Opening Ceremonies.
8) Closing Ceremonies. (Disk version only).

To select an option: Move joystick UP or DOWN to highlight the number of your choice. Then press FIRE BUTTON. Or select a number by using the keyboard and then press RETURN.

*Be sure to indicate the number of joysticks by highlighting OPTION 5 and pressing the FIRE BUTTON until the correct number reads on the screen. This way the computer will always know which player is using which joystick.

COMPETING IN EVENTS:
When you select OPTIONS 1, 2, or 3, you will have the opportunity to enter the names and countries of each contender.

To select your country: Choose from 17 countries. Simply move the joystick to highlight the flag of the country of your choice.

Note: By pressing the FIRE BUTTON, you will hear the national anthem of the country whose flag is highlighted. (Not Spectrum 48K MSX).

To enter your name: Type your name from the keyboard and press RETURN/ENTER. To make deletions, corrections or additions simply use the normal word processing keys. To clear all the names off the screen, press SHIFT and HOME simultaneously.

After all your selections are made: Press F7

PRACTICE AN EVENT:
You will not need to enter your name or country here. Just select the event you wish to practice. Once you've completed a practice session, you will be asked if you want to practice the event again. Press "Y" on the keyboard to answer "YES". "N" for "NO" (or use the joystick).

SEE WORLD RECORDS:
Throughout all competitions your scores and times are carefully recorded. To view them, select this option.

OPENING AND CLOSING CEREMONIES:
To watch either of the ceremonies again, select one of these options.

THE EVENTS:
THE LUGE
Daring. Unwavering skill. And a touch of winter madness. That's what it takes to brave the searing pace of one of the Games' most thrilling events: The Luge. You'll lie prone - feet first - on a sled that's technogologically designed to assault time. You'll strive to make the most of every curve, every straightaway and - most of all - every muscle in your body. What a wild way to earn your gold!

The Event
The Luge is a type of toboggan designed for the utmost in aerodynamic efficiency. The Luge events take place on a specially designed and constructed refrigerated course. The courses range from 1000m in length for men to at least 700m for women with an average gradient of 8-11%.

History
Though tobogganing began in the sixteenth century, lugeing itself began in the late nineteenth century in the Alps. The first international race was in 1883 and the first world championships were held in 1955.

The Strategy
Luge riders attempt to achieve the best possible speed, first by grabbing the handles set into the starting position and rocking back and forth to create momentum. Then, by digging spiked gloves into the ice for added speed as they take off. And, finally, by correctly positioning themselves both in the luge and on the track.

Competing
Choose a Course. To do this, highlight the desired course by moving the joystick UP or DOWN. Then press the FIRE BUTTON. Note: All contenders for a given Luge event must compete on the same course.

Launch your Luge. Just as in the official event, you will have 30 seconds to complete your launch. First position yourself on the launching area by pressing the FIRE BUTTON to simulate grabbing the handlebars. Continue pressing the button as you push the joystick FORWARD and BACK to build momentum. When you're ready to shove off, release the FIRE BUTTON and press FORWARD as fast as possible on the joystick.

Dig In. As soon as you launch yourself, dig your spiked gloves into the ice to create additional momentum. To dig, tap the FIRE BUTTON quickly, repeatedly - until you hit the steep launch ramp.

Settering. Move the joystick RIGHT or LEFT to steer in those directions. You'll quickly learn that steering is very sensitive and how to go with the flow of the track.

Note: All LEFT and RIGHT movements are relative to the direction in which you're moving.

Rounding the Curves. Steer your luge to the inside of each curve to take advantage of the shortest possible distance.

Speeding through the Straightaways. Keep your luge dead centre on the straightaways so that it doesn't "drift" up or down.

Keep an eye on the meters. At the bottom of the screen are three meters labeled "Steer," "Drift," and "Position." "Steer" tells you the direction you're aiming. "Drift" lets you know if you're drifting to far. And "Position" gives you the distance from the sides of the track.

Scoring
All Luge contenders compete for the fastest time. The contender with the lowest time wins.

Winning Tips
In order to get leading edge here's a few things to keep in mind.
1. Always study the course before you begin. Memorizing the order of the turns will help you steer into them.
2. Keep one eye on the three indicators: STEER, DRIFT and POSITION.
3. Don't forget to "dig" from the time you show off until you reach the steep launch pad.
4. Stay away from the sides of the course. If you "bounce" off them, you will lose critical time.

FIGURE SKATING
Poise. Poetry in Motion. Precision. Of all the events, none undergo a closer scrutiny of skill, technique and timing than Figure Skating. And none are quite so breathtaking for the eye to behold. As you take to the ice, your muscles are filled with the excitement of knowing that this is your one big chance. And your mind is filled with the precision moves and fluid grace you've been practising for so long. Your technique demonstrates your precision of line. Your choreography shows all the release of your spirit. And it all comes together in what could best be defined as true "art."

The Event
Figure skating is probably the most artistic of all the events. It's performed in a rectangular rink that should not measure less than 56x26m. And not more than 60x30m. The rink must also have a good sound system since each skater provides his or her own musical background. The skates used for figure skating must have blades that are about 3mm wide and a flat to concave bottom edge. Apparel must be modest, yet allow for complete freedom of movement.

History
Historians believe that skating may be as much as 2,000 years old. But it reached its height of popularity at the end of the seventeenth century in England and France. The first world championships were held in 1896.

The Strategy
Figure skating are judged in two separate areas: technical and artistic achievement. Technical points are awarded for the precision with which the skater performs at least 8 standard movements. Artistic points are awarded for choreography.

Competing
Choose your music. The first step in planning your figure skating routine is to select your music. Here's how:

Move the joystick RIGHT or LEFT to choose the type of music for your routine. Each musical piece is represented by one of the musical instruments at the top of the screen. Press the FIRE BUTTON to make your selection. Then wait for a few seconds for the music to begin. As the music plays you'll choreograph your moves to it.

Note: The first players choice of music will be used by any other player(s).

Choreograph your Moves. Just as a real contender will, you must choreograph your every move. Which means you'll select and set your moves to music. Here's how:

Each of the silhouetted dancers represents a specific move. You will select your moves in the same way you selected your music: by moving the joystick RIGHT or LEFT until your selection is highlighted and then pressing the FIRE BUTTON. A joystick icon in the lower right corner of the screen, shows you exactly when to move the joystick to perform each of the moves. The length of each musical piece allows you to select up to fourteen moves. To be eligable for a top score, you must select at least one each of the 8 moves, and perform at least 10 moves throughout your routine.

Listen carefully to the music because your moves will be timed to the point in the music at the moment you selected it. And part of your score will be based on how closely you followed your own choreography. Keep an eye on the music meter at the bottom of the screen. The arrow on the meter tells you how much music is remaining so you can space your moves out to "fill" the music.

If you decide to start the choreography procedure over, rapidly press FORWARD twice on the joystick. When you have completed the choreography to your satisfaction, press the FIRE BUTTON to allow the next player to make his or her selections. When all the players have made their selections, press the FIRE BUTTON again to begin the performance.

The Performance
You are now ready to perform the figure skating routine you have choreographed for the judges. You must try to remember exactly the order and timing of your choreography to come as close as possible to perfect score.

To skate around the rink: Press the joystick LEFT to go left, RIGHT to go right.

To perform a move: Press the joystick UP.

Note: Watch your timing and be careful to perform each move exactly as you choreographed it.

The icons in the lower left corner of the screen, whoe you your current and upcoming moves. Also, a timebar with coloured arrow in the lower right portion of the screen lets you know when to execute each move. Watch the arrow as it changes to these colours:

YELLOW - means "There are more than two seconds until your next move."

GREEN - means "Execute your move at the right point in the music." (You are within two seconds before or after the time to execute your move.)

RED - means "You are more than two seconds late to perform your move." If you fall, press the FIRE BUTTON to start the move over again. When you have completed all your moves or when the music ends, your skater will stop. Press the FIRE BUTTON to view your score. To end your routine early, press the FIRE BUTTON twice rapidly. Press the FIRE BUTTON again for the next player's performance.

Scoring
Your score is based on both your technical and artistic performance. The technical score reflects how well you executed your moves. Your artistic score is based on how closely your moves matched the timing of your original choreography. The best pssible score you could have is a 6.

Winning Tips
For that winning edge here's a few things to keep in mind:

1. When choreographing your moves, try to place them at memorable points in the music. This will help you know just when to perform them.

2. Certain moves will be difficult to perform in a sequence. Once you discover which these are, avoid choreographing them together.

3. Practice. Practice. Practice.

SPEED SKATING
Sheer, rock-hard strength, Legs of steel. And unerring rhythm. These are the qualities that can send you screaming past the competition at the finish line in the Speed Skating races. You'll reach speeds no other selfpropelled athletes will ever attain. Your nerves will be assaulted by the sight of your competition coming up beside you. And your heart will race with every swing of your arm, every thrust of your skates. But you keep going. Your body bent for optimum aerodynamics. Skating for the Gold.

The Event
No other self-propelled athlete can gain as much speed as a champion speed skater. Reaching speeds of up to 30 miles an hour, speed skaters can easily overtake even the fastest track runners. Speed Skaters race two at a time, counterclockwise around a track. Men compete in 500m, 1,000m, 5,000m and 10,000m races. Women race in 500m, 1,000m, 1,500m and 3,000m races.

History
The sport of Speed Skating goes back to twelfth century Holland where contenders raced on the frozen canals. In the nineteenth century Speed Skating caught on in the U.S., Canada and Scandinavia. The first World Championships were held in Amsterdam in 1893.

The Strategy
Skaters compete for the fastest times. The skater with the lowest time wins.

Competing
Choose your Track. All competitors play on one of four tracks. First use the joystick to highlight the track of your choice. Then, press the FIRE BUTTON to go into the skating screen.

Note: All contenders for the Speed Skating event must compete on the same track.

At the Starting Line. The race starts the moment the guns goes off. But be sure and watch the bottom of the screen. It will prompt you to get on your mark, get ready, get set and - finally - to GO.

Racing. Press the joystick RIGHT and LEFT to thrust your arms and feet. Timing and rhythmic movements are critical. The smoother your moves, the faster you'll go. Press the joystick UP while moving LEFT and RIGHT to skate up over the cross-over section of the track. Press the joystick DOWN while moving LEFT and RIGHT to skate down over the cross-over section of the track. If your skater falls, press the FIRE BUTTON to get him back on his feet.

Scoring
The lower your time, the closer you are to taking home the Gold

Winning Tips
1. When moving your lefs left and right, remember: rhythm is everything.

2. Be sure to watch when another skater enters the cross-over section of the track.

3. Pace yourself from beginning to end to be sure to use your energy wisely.

SKIING
The Skiing competition is divided into four different groups: Downhill racing, the slalom, ski jumping and cross country racing. We will describe each of these events in greater detail in the following sections.

History
Studies of rock drawing indicates that skis may have been used as a form of winter travel as early as 3,000 BC. But it wasn't until the nineteenth century in Norway that skiing was first developed as an organized sport. Skiing was introduced in the United States in the 1840's and in the Alps in the 1880's.

DOWNHILL
A free fall in white. A confidence in the forces of gravity. A oneness with the mountain herself. These are the qualities that difference a technical racer from a gold medal winner. As you shove off from the top of the mountain, the slope provides the power. You simply go with it. Using your poles for balance. And your mind for building the belief that this one is yours.

The Strategy
The downhill ski course is designed in such a way that there are no sharp ridges, ledges, bumps or other obstacles. "Gates," which consits of two flags on either side of the racing arena, will mark the skier's course. And cameras can be strategically placed throughout the course. Racers are judged by their times. The lower their times, the better their scores.

Competing
Select your camera positions. There are four cameras in all. To place your cameras, simply move the joystick UP or DOWN to position the camera icons and press the FIRE BUTTON to set them. When all four cameras have been placed, press the FIRE BUTTON to place your racer at the starting gate. If, for some reason, you don't want any cameras, skip this step by pressing the FIRE BUTTON to proceed.

Note: Once the cameras are set, all skiiers will use the same camera views.

At the Starting Gate. To warm your player up before taking off, push the joystick UP and DOWN. To shove off from the starting gate you must firmly plant your poles into the snow. To do so, press the FIRE BUTTON.

Racing. Once you get going, continue to use your poles to gain speed. Also, follow these directions:

To go into a tuck (speed up): Press the joystick UP. To snowplough (slow down): Press the joystick DOWN. To turn right: Move the joystick RIGHT. To turn left: Move the joystick LEFT. To stop yourself once you fall: Pull BACK on the joystick.

Changing perspectives: You'll start out in first person perspective. But as you reach each of your four cameras (indicated by red flags), the perspective will change to a third person perspective, you'll actually be watching yourself. As you ski beyond the field view of each camera, the perspective will change back to first person perspective.

Flips. While in third person perspective (in front of the cameras), you'll be able to show off. To do a flip, move the joystick LEFT or RIGHT while simultaneously holding down the FIRE BUTTON.

Scoring
Downhill skiers compete for the fastest time. The skier with the lowest time wins.

Winning Tips
1. Once out of the starting gate, use your poles repeatedly in the beginning to gain as much speed as possible.

2. Cut your turns as close to the flags (or gates) as possible. This will help you cut down on your distance and speed up your time.

3. Take advantage of the straightaways to build speed by staying in the tuck position as long as possible.

4. Try to memorize the course so you'll be totally prepared for each turn and each straightaway.

SLALOM
Speed. Control. And split-second timing. It's this conflicting combination of speed and control that makes the Slalom one of the most difficult of all the skiing events. As you plunge down the mountain, you must twist and turn at every flag. And as soon as you recover from one challenge, you're immediately confronted with the next - with never a second to catch your breath or relax your furious pace. Until you hit the bottom. Waiting to find out your time. Waiting to see how it compares to the others. Waiting to determine your chance for the Gold.

The Strategy
Unlike the downhill course, the slalom course twists and turns. So the contender must perfom precision turns around a number of strategically placed "gates" (or flags). If the contender crashes into a flag, hits the sidelines or misses the rhythm of the course, he or she faults and gets no score.

Competing
Select your Course. To choose from the four different courses, simply move the "box" by pressing the joystick in the desired direction. As you can see, the more flags on a course, the more difficult it will be.

Note: All contenders in a given race will compete on the same course. At the Starting Gate. Press the FIRE BUTTON to bring your contender to the starting gate. Then wait for the starter's gun (Get set, ready, Go!) and ... you're off!

Racing. Be sure to pass ABOVE the first flag to get off to the right rhythm. Then move the joystick UP and DOWN to avoid the flags and descend the slope.

Scoring

The slalom skiers compete for the fastest times. The lowest time wins.

Winning Tips.
1. To increase your speed, press the FIRE BUTTON.

2. Stay as close to the flags as possible to reduce your distance - and your time.

3. Build up a tight rhythm.

THE SKI JUMP
Daredevil bravery. Nerves of steel. And total control. As the ski jumper hangs in mid-air, high above the skyline, all sounds seem to halt for that brief moment. All but the sound of the heart pounding. As you ride though the air, form counts the distance, angle counts for the style points. Both timing and form are critical for a flawless landing, and for a medal-winning score.

The Strategy
This thrilling demonstration sport combines nerves of steel with precision placement. Plan your daredevil moves before your ski off the summit. Because there's no time for chaning your mind when you're hanging in mid-air!

Competing
Down the Ramp. Follow the screen prompts to begin your jump. Then as you travel down the ramp, follow these instructions: To crouch (speed up): Press the joystick UP. To turn right or left: Move the joystick RIGHT or LEFT. To jump: Press the FIRE BUTTON. In the Air: While in the air, remember:

To lean backward: Press the joystick LEFT. To lean forward: Press the joystick RIGHT. To raise your arms: Press the joystick UP. To lower your arms: Press the joystick DOWN. To go into landing position: At a 45 degree angle hold down the FIRE BUTTON until you hit the ground.

Changing Perspectives: You'll start out down the ramp in first person perspective. But as you jump off the ramp and into the air, the perspective will change to a third person perspective. (Which means you will be able to see yourself.)

Scoring
Your score is based on your style in the air and on your distance. To increase your style points, keep your body at a 45 degree angle, and enter the landing position at the last moment.

Winning Tips
1. Don't jump too soon, you'll lose distance.
2. Don't jump too late, you'll lose form and control.
3. Keep your body at a 45 degree angle during the fall for the best possible score on style.
4. Don't go into a landing position until the last possible second.

CROSS COUNTRY SKIING
Endurance. Endurance. Endurance. It's you against time. It's you against the perils of winter. It's you against the mountain. In this test of pure physical prowess, nothing is on your side. Except for an occasional surge of gravity when you reach a dip in the course. Your heart speeds to its top capacity. Your adrenaline races. Your every muscle is operating at peak performance leves. And still, even with all this, it's going to take more to put you in first place. It's going to take all the spirit you can muster. And then some.

The Strategy
Cross Country skiing is probably one of the most physically demanding sports in the Games. Contenders are moving constantly and often against the forces of gravity. If a contender stops for any more than four seconds, he or she immediately faults. The Cross Country course consists of roughly one-third uphill, one-third down-hill and one-third flat terrain. There should be no sudden sharp changes of direction or slope to hamper the contender's rhythm.

Competing
Beginning. There will always be two racers on the screen at one time. If there is only one player using a joystick, your computer will "ski" for the opponent. Press the FIRE BUTTON to start the countdown.

Racing. When the countdown reaches "GO", begin skating by moving the joystick RIGHT and LEFT, matching the position of your skier's legs.

Going Uphill. If you begin to lose momentum on the hills, you can "step up" rather than ski up. To do so, hold the FIRE BUTTON down while continuing to move the skier's legs back and forth.

Going Downhill. To build up extra speed on the downhill slopes, press the FIRE BUTTON while moving the poles to double pole.

Scoring
Cross country skiers compete for the fastest times. The skier with the lowest time wins.

Winning Tips
1. Try to get a rhythmic motion going in your skier's legs by moving the joystick LEFT, then quickly RIGHT.
2. Don't jerk the joystick RIGHT and LEFT too quickly.
3. Don't let your skier stop - you need the momentum to win the race.

AWARDS CEREMONY:
After each event the winning competitor's national anthem will play and the three top winners' flags will appear. For each event, the gold medal winner will receive 5 points. The silver medal winner will receive 3 points and the bronze medal winner, 1 point. After all the events are finished, the contender with the highest number of points is again rewarded and his national anthem played.

Note: To fast forward through any of the awards ceremonies, press and hold down on the FIRE BUTTON.

THE CLOSING CEREMONIES:
Once you complete the COMPETE IN ALL EVENTS option, you'll automatically be invited to the CLOSING CEREMONIES. You'll return to the site of the still burning Torch. Tension will mount as contenders await the final awards ceremony - where bronze, silver and, of course, gold medals are coveted rewards.

Finally, as the sun sets behind the mountains, you'll see a spectacular fireworks display, marking the end of this truly awesome event. It's now time to bid good-bye of the host city. And good-bye to one of the most amazing spectacles of human strength and dignity. The Games.


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