Jack Nicklaus
Greatest 18 Holes Of Major Championship Golf
Copyright/Publisher: Accolade, Programmed By: Ken Moore, Designed By: Ned Martin & Sculptured Software,
Produced By: Sam Nelson, Release Year: 1988, Genre: Golf, Number Of Players: 1 to 4

INTRODUCTION:
The 18 holes from the U.S. a British Isles that Jack Nicklaus has selected as his favourite 18 holes of Major Championship Golf. The best holes of the best courses of the Big Four: Pebble Beach, St.Andrews, Riviera, Royal Lytham, Baltusrol, Merion, Muirfield, Oakmont and Augusta National. These are the winner-makers - the legendary tests of golf every great golfer must pass.

LOADING
1. Turn on your computer. Put your joystick in Port 2. Insert the Jack Nicklaus cassette into your cassette player, label side up. Rewind to the beginning.

2. Press and hold the Shift key and press the RUN/STOP key. Then press PLAY on the cassette.

3. When prompted press PLAY on the recorder.

Select Skins or Stroke Play
1. Use the joystick to highlight the number of players you want to phave play on either the Skins or Stroke Play formats, then press the Fire button. (Player description will follow).

Skins
A game made popular in recent years by a special tournament that has pitted head-to-head: Jack Nicklaus, Gary Player, Arnold Palmer, Lee Trevino, and Fuzzy Zoeller. The rules are similar to Match Play -- you have to win a hole outright (no ties) -- but the betting system completely changed the objective. Instead of the most holes, you try to win the most money.

A dollar amount is assigned to each hole. Typically, the first six holes are worth one amount, the next six are worth twice that much, and the last six are triple the original prize. The best ball (lowest score on the hole) takes the prize.

If the hole is halved (two or more players tie for best ball) the money for the hole carries over to the next one. The means the money -- and the tension -- can add up fast. In one memorable Skins games, Gary Player had to roll in a 4-foot birdie to walk away with $170,000.

Stroke Play
In stroke play, most great players consider the golf course to be their opposition much more than their fellow competitors. That's because the goal is not to win holes (Match Play), or take the big money holes (Skins), but to shoot the lowest score over 18 holes. As Jack puts it: "Stroke play is an 18-hole game, but you can play it only one shot at a time."

Select Your Players
After you select a format, you make five decisions about each player you choose for you match.
For each decision:

o Move the joystick to highlight your decision.

o Press the fire button to confirm it.

o As you complete each player, highlight TO NEXT PLAYER, and press the fire button.

o After your final selection, press F1 to go to the next screen.

1. Player 1: Male - Female
The average male player hits clubs longer than the average female player but, of course, anyone can make extraordinary shots.

2. Computer player: Yes - No
o Choose from nine different computer players -- five men and four women -- with varied skills. (Check the next section for complete descriptions).

o Push the joystick up or down to cycle through the players' names.

o Choose a name, click on the joystick button, and the player's skill level, tee position, and gender are automatically set.

3. Name
o To create a new player, type the desired name (up to eight letters) and press RETURN.

4. Skill
o Beginner : Wind conditions don't affect your shots as much, and your slices and hooks are less extreme. On each shot, your club is automatically selected for you.

o Expert : Wind really comes into play, and hooks and slices are most extreme. In addition, you must select your club for each shot.

5. Tee :
Pro - Farthest from the hole
Men's - Far away, but not as far
Ladies' - Closet to the hole

Note: Some holes are designed with less than three tees, in which case some players share a tee.

Who Are These Computer Players?

5. Tee :
Jack N The Golden Bear himself. Naturally, the Player of the Century plays at the expert level and hits from the pro tees. Hits shots are carefully planned, well executed and he hits the ball further than the posted distance for each club. Nicklaus is one of those rare golfers who almost always does exactly what he set out to do.

Nancy D
Though enthusiastic, Nancy's just beginning. She often suffers a wicked slice on her drivers. And long putts give her lots of trouble.

Lars X
Calls himself Mr. X and likes to think of himself as an expert -- which is why he drives from the pro tees. has a tendency to hook drives and pull putts to the left.

Babs R
A true competitor, Babs considers herself an expert. She usually hits the ball straight -- with an occasional slice. When it comes to putting, she's overly cautious, and frequently leaves her putts short.

Art M
Art's a weekend golfer who could use a little practice. His shots tend to be short but straight. And his putts to be long and off-line.

Natasha
Natasha's a big hitter. She drives from the men's tees, and has played at the expert level for years. If she doesn't slice, her tee shots are beautiful. But she often lags her putts.

Eddie C
He's no Jack Nicklaus, but this guy's Good. So good, in fact, he makes a living suckering players into a "friendly" game of skins. Naturally he plays at the expert level and drives from the pro tees.

Sally C
Though she's been playing for years, Sally is still a beginner. She just can't seem to get the swing of it. She hits from the ladies' tees. Her drives could go either way -- hook or slice. And she leaves he putts short.

Curly O
Curly just took up golfing this year and loves it. Problem is, he doesn't really play that well. He shoots from the men's tees, and plays at the beginner's level. His slices could end up just about anywhere. So could his putts.

Select Prizes for Your Skins Game
You can choose to play Championship Skins -- a $36,000 match with single hole prizes of $100, $2000, and $3000 for each set of 6 holes -- or change the entire prize structure.

1. To play the existing game, highlight Championship Skins and press the fire button.

2. To alter the total wager, highlight Change Total Prize, press the fire button.

o Type in the new total beside the $ symbol (not to exceed $9,999,999), and press the RETURN key. New wagers are automatically assigned for each hole.

3. To alter the prize for any hole, highlight Change Hole Prized, then press the fire button.

o Highlighy the hole you want to change, and press the fire button.

o Type in the desired prize amount from the keyboard. Press RETURN, the computer automatically recalculates the prize total for the entire course.

4. Press F1 to continue to the next screen.

Pick A Game Option -- Practice or Play
Choose one of the following activities by entering its number.

1. Play a round
o 18 holes: 9 out and 9 in

2. Practice a hole
o Enter the number of the hole (1-18) you want to practice, and press Enter.

o After you hole out, you automatically view the Scorecard and Statistics Sheet fro that hole.

o Continue to press the joystick button to return to the Practice or Play menu.

3. Driving range
o Hit as many balls as you want with any club (except the putter) Keep your eye on the wind indicator; it may change after each shot (see Wind).

o Press Q to quit the driving range and return to the Practice or Play menu.

4. Practice green
o Hone your stroke. Get the feel of lining up your putts, playing the break, and controlling the speed (see Putting). Press Q to return to the Practice or Play Menu.

Note: Computer players don't go to the driving range or practice green -- they fell they're good enough already.

5. Quit
o Answer the prompts (yes or no) to return to the Course Selection screen or to exit the game.

Gameplay -- Tee to Green
Overhead Views of Each Hole
An overhead view of each hole appears before you tee off. It gives you basic data -- course name, hole number, par, distance, from each tee -- as well as a detailed look at the layout.

1. Study the hole. Jack excels at this; so can you.

o Par attention to the pin placement. It's random which changes the length and character of the hole every time you play it.

o Analyze the potential hazards -- doglegs, trees, water, traps, out of bounds, cart paths -- then identify the optimum target areas for your shots.

o Jack puts it this way: "There is an ideal route for playing every golf hole ever built, and the more precisely you can identify it, the greater your chances for success'.

2. Click the fire button when you're prepared to tee off.

3. Press the Letter O anytime during the hole to return to this Overhead view.

A Tip From Jack...
The Overhead View can help you be a smarter Skins player because it shows you the relative locations of every ball that's played. Use it to compare your next shot to what your opponents must face. The information will tell you whether to play safe, or go for it.

"A definite time to be conservative in a Skins game is when your opponent, hitting first, finds serious trouble such as out-of-bounds," says Jack. "Swallow your pride and play it cozy. Conversely, if you're in trouble and he's obviously in A-1 shape, there's little to be lost by gambling."

Choose Your Clubs

1. Beginner
o A club is automatically selected for you on each shot from tee to green. It appears in the Club Selection box at the bottom right of your screen, along with the posted maximum distance for that club.

o The computer calculated your yardage from the pin, then selects the club whose posted maximum distance (see the Club Distance chart on the back cover) is closet to that yardage.

o Be careful: The computer only takes distance into consideration -- not wind, trees, rough or other conditions which can affect club selection.

o You can override the computer's choice by pointing and clicking on the Up and Down arrows beside the selected club. Stop when the club of your choice appears:

Eight irons (2-9)
Two fairway woods (3-4)
One pitching wedge (P-Wedge)
One sand wedge (S-Wedge)
One Driver

2. Expert
o You must select your own clubs for each shot; the Club Selection box defaults to the last club you used until you select another stick

o The computer automatically defaults to the sand wedge in the sand, the Putter on the green, and the Driver on the tee; but it won't default to the Driver off the tee.

o Base your decision on the yardage to the pin -- as shown on the bottom center of the screen -- and other playing conditions such as wind, hazards and rough.

o Check the Club Selection chart on the back cover to see the maximum distance each club can be hit without overswinging (no yardage appears in the Club Selection box)

o If you don't select a club, the computer selects either the last club you used (except the Driver), or the sand wedge or putter if you're in the sand or on the green.

A tip from Jack...
Club selection is wide open in this game except for three exceptions: Your driver can only be hit from the tee, your putter can only be hit from the green, and the sand wedge can only be hit from a sand trap.

But before you select any club, prepare for your shot mentally. "Before every shot, look hard at what confronts you and then decide on a club, and target, "Jack says. "identify the specific risks -- Out-of-bounds, water, bunker, heavy rough, wind, ground slope, pin placement -- and weigh them against your capabilities."

Aiming Your Shots
A top the Play screen, a small flagstick always indicates where the pin is located in relation to your position. (This is especially helpful on blind shots where hills or trees obstruct your view of the real flag.)

1. Move the joystick left and right to adjust the "Aiming Ball" to the left and right of the small flag. (or, you can point to the Aiming Ball, click and hold the fire button, and "drag" the ball to your desired location.)

2. Slide it past the left peg: the screen automatically redraws and you now see what you would see if you had physically shifted your vision to the left.

3. Slide it past the right peg: it causes the same shift of perspective, but to the right.

4. If you want, you can continue to scroll right or left and see a 360 degree view of the hole from where you're standing.

Changing Your Perspective
If you don't like the direction you're aiming toward -- say a tree blocks your shot -- you can change it:

1. Move the joystick left and right Aim Shot to slide the Aiming Ball past either of the two vertical pegs that bookend the top of the screen. (Or, you can point to the Aiming Ball, clock and hold the joystick button, and "Drag" the ball past the pegs.)

2. Slide it past the left peg: The screen automatically redraws and you now see what you would see if you had physically shifted your vision to the left.

3. Slide it past the right peg: It causes the same shift of perspective, but to the right.

4. If you want, you can continue to scroll right or left and see a 360 degree view of the hole from where you're standing.

A tip from Jack...
This feature can be used anytime, but it's especially helpful between the tee and green where you're deciding whether to gamble or not gamble. It's often better to shirt trouble than to always aim for the pin on your approach shots.

It's usually higher handicappers who don't play away from obvious dangers -- bunkers, trees, waters, etc. "Unless you are forced by the competitive situation to gamble, " Jack says. "I lean toward playing safe and moving on. It's paid off for me -- especially on the tough coursed used in major championships."

Swinging
The movement of the Power Bar on the left of the screen corresponds directly with your players' swing on screen. To control the swing, you control the Power Bar, using the fire button. (You can also use the RETURN key.

Every shot required three taps on the fire button. The timing of them determines how hard and how straight you can hit the ball.

1. Press fire button once to begin your backswing.

2. Press fire button a second time to control the distance of your shot (and start your downswing.)

3. Press fire button a final time to strike the ball -- and control how far left or right of straight you want to hit it.

"Swinging" the Power Bar
The middle section of the Power Bar -- let's call it the Swing Zone -- is divided into ten segments, each of which represents 10% of your club's potential distance (as determined by the Club Distance chart, and as shown in the Club Selection Box.)

Thus, the bottom line of the Swing Zone represents 0% or 0 distance; the top line represents 100%, or the maximum distance for each club as set by the computer; and the Half Line represents 50% or half that maximum distance.

A Sample Shot:
You're sanding on the tee of a 300-yard hole, so you take your driver and you want to hit it full. If you're a man, a full driver, means 250 yards in this game. You decide to hit it dead straight because that's the way the hole goes, and there's no offending wind of hazards.

1. Press the fire button to start your backswing; a color rises like mercury from the bottom of the Swing Zone towards the 100% line.

2. Watch the rise carefully. Try to click the fire button the moment it reaches the 100% line.

o A Triangular arrow to the left of the Power Bar indicates exactly where you make your click.

o After the click, the color descends, just like your backswing.

3. To Keep your shot straight on target (the flagstick), make yours third click on the '0' line.

o Another arrow appears to mark your click.

4. If each click is right on the button, your ball sails 250 years straight down the fairway, and you're left with a 50-yard approach shot to the green.

o The computer automatically tells you how far you hit your last shot.

Controlling Your Distance
Of course, you don't hit every club full if you want to stay in bounds. Let's continue the sample hole to see how to control the distance of your shots.

You're 50 yards from the pin, so you select your pitching wedge (P-Wedge) because the chart says the pitching wedge can whack it 100 yards if you hit it full. But you don't want to hit it full; you want to hit half a wedge 50 yards:

1. Click the fire button to start your swing.
o Notice that the color rises much more slowly with a wedge than it does with any other club.

o The smaller the club, the slower the rise -- because the most humans smaller clubs (like the high irons) are easier to hit than big ones (Drivers and fairways woods)

2. Click the fire button the moment the rising color reaches the Half Line -- that's 50% of the wedge's full distance (100 yards) or 50 yards.

o Remember that each line in the Swing Zone represents 10 percent of any club's posted maximum distance

3. As the color descends, make your final click right on the bottom line of the Swing Zone to hit the ball straightaway.

The ball should loop gently 50 yards into the air than nestle onto the green -- inches from the cup.

Overswinging and Underswinging
What happens if you don't make your second, or distance, click directly on the 100% line of the Swing Zone?

1. If you make the second click late -- inside the Power Swing Zone -- you overswing.

o That means your shot can carry longer than the posted maximum distance of your club

o It also means that if you misjudge your third, or accuracy, click, the resulting hook or slice is randomly exaggerated.

2. If you're early on the second click -- beneath the 100% line of the Swing Zone -- you underswing.

o That means the distance of your shot will be some percentage less than the full posted distance of your club

o How much less depends on how early you make your click -- the earlier the click, the shorter your hit

A Tip From Jack...
Overswinging and underswinging are not necessarily bad. It depends on the situation. You have to underswing on some shots -- for example, when you have a 6-foot putt and you're holding a putter with an 80-foot range. And accuracy isn't sacrificed by underswinging, just distance.

Overswinging's another story. It can really hurt you if you're not careful. Its takes a prefect third click to avoid a major slice or hook in serious trouble. Says Jack: "You'll hit the ball straighter and more solidly when you don't mentally pressure yourself to produce absolute perfection and "press" every club for its maximum distance. Take one more club than you think you need for every approach shot and swing normally."

On the other hand, a big hit sometimes, offers the better golfer a find opportunity to gain a competitive edge. "A prefect example is the 15th at Augusta Nationals," says Jack. "Almost everyone cuts loose here because the reward can be a shot at the green with an iron for a two-putt birdie."

Hooking and Slicing
If there's no wind and if you make your third, or accuracy, click right on the bottom line of the Swing Zone, the ball should fly straight. But just as you can't hit every club full, it's unlikely that you can hit every shot straight. And sometimes you don't want to hit it straight.

1. How to hit a hook, so that it "draws" the ball to the left (for a right-handed golfer):

o After your second, or distance, click, the color descends toward the bottom line of the Swing Zone.

o Click the fire button before the color reaches the bottom line -- in other words, swing early -- and your shot hooks to the left.

o How far it hooks depends upon how early you swing (the earlier the swing, the bigger the hook), and how hard you swing (if you overswing into the Power Swing Zone, the hook is randomly exaggerated)

2. How to hit a slice that "fades" the ball to the right (for a right-handed golfer):

o After your second, or distance, click, the color descends toward the bottom line of the Swing Zone.

o Click the joystick button after the color reaches the bottom line -- in other words, swing late -- and your shot slices to the right.

o How far it slices depends upon how late you swing (the later the swing, the bigger the slice), and how hard you swing (if you overswing into the Power Swing Zone, the slice is randomly exaggerated)

A Tip From Jack...
The "ability" to hook and slice can destroy a hole or an entire round, but with a little strategy, technique and practice they can give you a major advantage over your opponent.

"Let's say I'm playing a 5-iron shot to a green 80 feet wide with the pin centrally located," says Jack. "if I aim at the pin and attempt to hit straight, I have only 40 feet of green to work with if I hook or slice the shot."

"But by aiming, says 20 feet to the left or right of the pin and trying to face or draw the ball in toward it, I give myself a much greater margin for error. Now I can "miss" the shot by 40 feet and still keep the ball within 20 feet of the hole."

"That is the tactical reason good golfers rarely try to hit the ball dead straight. The technical reason is that a straight shot is much harder to keep repeating than a fade or draw."

Hazards and Course Conditions
Your swing isn't the only variable you have to consider (or overcome) when you're trying to hit the ball straight.

Wind
Technically not a hazard itself, wind can certainly help you find the legitimate ones in a hurry. The amount and direction of the wind that affects each shot is registered on a circular Wind Gauge at the lower left of your screen.

Wind Direction
o Imagine that you are standing in the center of the circle, facing straight ahead at the flagstick

o The line inside the circle is the wind

o Now imagine there's an arrow on that line aiming away from you -- that's the direction the wind is blowing.

Wind Speed
o A bar gauge labeled WIND -- below the direction circle -- tells you how hard the wind is blowing.

o The indicator is a red bar which slides from left to right on the gauge: 0 mph on the left, 10 mph in the center, 20 mph on the right.

A Tip From Jack...
"You need intelligence and patience to play well in wind," Jack says, "but most of all you need to strong sense of realism and sure emotional control. Par climbs for all golfers along with wind force."

Tailwinds
A following wind makes it harder to stop the ball in the fairway or on the green, so club yourself accordingly. Jack: "I take one or two clubs less than the distance would normally require and hit hard. Don't ever "baby" a shot when you want height -- give it a good, solid whack."

Headwinds
Obviously, you need a compensate for a strong headwind by swinging harder or using more club. "Your goal any time you're firing dead into a strong wind," says Jack, "should be a low, boring flight. To minimize soaring you must minimize backspin, and you'll do that most effectively by playing the ball from right to left, rather than straight or from left to right."

Crosswinds
Jack: "You have two options whenever the wind is fully or partially across the line of a shot. One is to hook or slice against the direction of the wind, thus "holding" the ball more or less straight. The other option is simply to aim as much off the direct lines as you think the wind will move the ball and play your normal shot, allowing the ball to be blown back to the target."

Rough
Use more club or more power to hit out of the longer, thicker grass that borders the manicured fairways.

Sand Traps
Like the rough, you need more power or more club to get distance from a fairway bunker.

Water and Out-of-Bounds
Hitting into the water costs you a one-stroke penalty, and the computer gives you the option of hitting the ball again from the same location or dropping the ball near the water (but no closer to the hole).

Cart Path
It depends on the situation whether or not a cart path is hazardous or not. The ball bounces higher and farther off of it, which may be desirable on a trouble-free drive. But on some shots, the carom can carry you right Out-of-Bounds.

Putting
You can only hit the putter on greens, and you use the same technique to aim and stroke a putt as you use to hit any club.

Aiming and Stroking
1. Imagine an invisible straight lines that connects your ball, the hole, and the Aiming Ball at the top of the screen.

2. Point and click on the Right and Left arrows beside Aim Shot to move the Aiming Ball onto the end of that imaginary line. (or, point to the Aiming Ball, click and hold the joystick button and "Drag" the ball there.)

3. Use the three-click procedure on the Power Bar to control the distance and direction of your stroke. o Remember that the maximum distance on your putter is 80 feet, thus every segment on the Power Bar represents 8 feet.

Reading the Break
Unfortunately, many greens aren't flat, so your putter won't always go straight. To find out how much a putt is going to break right or left, or if you're putting uphill or downhill, check the Break Indicator. It's in the same location as the Wind Gauge and operates, in a similar way.

Right, Left, Uphill, Downhill?
1. Imagine that the line in the circle has an arrow on it pointing outwards -- that's the direction that the putt will break (right or left) if you're aiming directly at the hole.

o If there's no line, there's no break.

2. If the arrow points due south as on a compass, that means that the putt is uphill and has no break.

o Uphill putts are slow' make a firm stroke.

3. If the arrow points due north, the putt is straight downhill.

o Downhill putts are fast; ease up on the mallet.

4. If the line points, say, northeast, that means you putt is uphill and it breaks to the right. Compensate for both factors.

How much does it break?
o A bar gauge labeled BREAK -- below the direction circle -- tells you the intensity of a putt's break.

o The Indicator is a red bar which slides from left to right on the gauge: If at the far left (no color), the break is virtually non-existent; if at the far right, you have a major break.

A Tip From Jack...
"The amount any putt breaks depends on its speed," says Jack. "The harder you hit it, less the break will alter its course. This is good to remember, especially on short putts when you're under pressure. The greater the pressure you're under, the better off you are playing boldly rather than cutely on "must" short putts." The Scorecard, Statistics, Best Round Board

How much does it break?
The Scorecard and Statistics screens appear consecutively after each hole. To view, the Scorecard in the middle of a round, press C. For the Statistics Screen, press S.

The Scorecard changes for each format:

Stroke Play Scorecard
o Shows the hole score and aggregate score for each player, as well as the par for each hole, each nine, and the course.

Skins Game Scorecard
o Indicates the winner of each hole, how much money is won on each hole, and the total money earned for each player.

Statistics Screen (the same for both formats)
o Longest drive (in years) and the yardage of your last drive.
o Closet ball to the pin (in feet, if you hit the green in regulation)
o # of Fairways hit (only on Par 4 or 5 tee shots)
o # of Greens hit (only on Par 3 tee shots)
o Putts taken
o Birdies and Eagles made

Best Round Sheet
o At the end of each round, your final score is compared to the score of anyone who has ever played your disk.

o It records the seven best rounds of all times of each course. (Make sure that your disks are "write enabled" which means that if you're using a 3.50" disk the sliding tab in the corner is closed.)

o To view it from the game screen, Press B.

Strategy
o Be as accurate as you can on your second, or distance, clock on the Power Bar. If you go past your target, your shoot will be long.

o Keep your eyes on the Power Bar (but watch other players when they're hitting -- the graphics are great!)

o Use an iron, not a wood, when hitting from the sand or rough.

o If you're shooting from heavy rough, take two more clubs than you normally use.

o When in doubt, or you need a know your key commands, Press "H" for HELP!

o It's not easy, but you can beat the computer Jack Nicklaus. One advantage you have over him is that you can hit the ball longer than he does (that's all we're going to tell you).

o Putting: Remember that the break indicator only tells you the direction of the break when you aim directly at the hole. If you hit the ball too far, or to the right or left, the slope of the green -- and hence the break -- will change.

Club Selection Chart
Club - Men's Distance - Ladies' Distance
Driver - 250 yards - 225 yards
3 Wood - 235 yards - 211 yards
4 Wood - 220 yards - 198 yards
2 Iron - 207 yards - 186 yards
3 Iron - 195 yards - 175 yards
4 Iron - 185 yards - 166 yards
5 Iron - 173 yards - 155 yards
6 Iron - 155 yards - 139 yards
7 Iron - 143 yards - 128 yards
8 Iron - 130 yards - 117 yards
9 Iron - 112 yards - 100 yards
P P-Wedge - 100 yards - 090 yards
S S-Wedge - 080 yards - 072 yards
Putter - 080 feet - 080 feet

Note:
These distances are calculated under near-prefect conditions. No wind, rough, slopes or hills. When you choose your clubs, be sure to compensate for all environmental factors.


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